Ubuzima

Ese wari uziko: Kugabanya karori no kurya mu gihe gikwiye cy’umunsi biganisha ku kuramba kw’imbeba

Uburyo bumwe bwo kuramba biroroshye, niba bitoroshye gukurikiza: kurya bike. Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe ku nyamaswa
zitandukanye bwerekanye ko kugabanya karori bishobora kuganisha ku buzima burambye, kandi bwiza.

Noneho, ubushakashatsi bushya bwerekana ko injyana ya buri munsi y’umubiri igira uruhare runini muri izi ngaruka zo kuramba.
Kurya gusa mu gihe cy’ibikorwa (akazi ka buri munsi) bya muntu bya buri munsi byongereye cyane igihe cyo kuramba,
nkuko byatangajwe na Howard Hughes ukora muri Medical Institute ushinzwe iperereza Joseph Takahashi na bagenzi be bavuga ko ku ya 5 Gicurasi 2022,
mu kinyamakuru Science.

Itsinda rye ryakoze ku mbeba amagana mu myaka ine, indyo yaragabanijwe byatumye hiyongeraho 10% k’ubuzima bw’inyamaswa.
Ariko kugaburira imbeba indyo nijoro gusa, mu gihe aribwo imbeba zikora cyane, zongerera ubuzima 35%. Iryo gaburo rya nijoro
rwakozwe mu gihe cy’amezi icyenda byatumye hiyongeraho k’ubuzima bw’inyamanswa imyaka ibiri yo kubaho. Kubantu, gahunda isa naho yabuza abantu kurya amasaha yo ku manywa.

Takahashi, inzobere mu binyabuzima bya molekuline muri kaminuza y’ubuvuzi ya Texas, avuga ko ubushakashatsi bufasha gukemura impaka zishingiye kuri gahunda
z’imirire zishimangira kurya gusa. Izi gahunda ntizishobora kwihuta kugabanya ibiro ku bantu, nkuko ubushakashatsi buherutse gusohoka mu kinyamakuru cyitwa
New England Journal of Medicine bwabitangaje, ariko birashobora kwihutisha ubuzima bwiza bikongerera igihe kirekire cyo kubaho.

Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe n’itsinda rya Takahashi bugaragaza uruhare rukomeye rwa metabolisme mu gusaza, nk’uko byatangajwe na Sai Krupa Das, umuhanga mu
by’imirire mu kigo cy’ubushakashatsi ku mirire ya Jean Mayer USDA ku bijyanye
n’ubusaza utagize uruhare muri ako kazi. Agira ati: “Ubu ni ubushakashatsi butanga icyizere kandi gikomeye.”

Isoko y’ubusore

Ubushakashatsi bumaze imyaka ibarirwa muri za mirongo bwerekanye ko kugabanuka kwa kalori kwongerera igihe cy’inyamaswa kuva ku inyo n’isazi kugeza ku mbeba.
Ubwo bushakashatsi buvuga ko kugabanya ibiro, kunoza glucose, kugabanya umuvuduko w’amaraso.

Butit avugako bigoye kwiga gahunda yo kugabanya kalori ku bantu, badashobora gutura muri laboratoire no kurya ibiryo byapimwe mu buzima bwabo bwose.
Yabaye mu itsinda ry’ubushakashatsi ryakoze ubushakashatsi bwa mbere bugenzurwa no kugabanya kalori mu bantu, bwiswe Isuzuma ryuzuye ry’ingaruka ndende zo
kugabanya gufata ingufu, cyangwa CALERIE.
Das avuga ko muri ubwo bushakashatsi, ndetse no kugabanya bike bya karori “byagize akamaro gakomeye” mu kugabanya ibimenyetso byo gusaza.

Abahanga batangiye gusobanukirwa n’uburyo bwo kugabanya kalori bidindiza gusaza ku rwego rwa selile na genetique. Mu gihe inyamaswa zishaje,
ingirabuzimafatizo zifitanye isano no gutwika ibinure kubera ko zikunda gukora cyane, mu gihe ingirabuzimafatizo zifasha kugenga metabolisme zidakora cyane.
Ubushakashatsi bushya bwa Takahashi bwerekanye ko kugabanya kalori, cyane cyane iyo bigeze igihe imbeba zikora nijoro,
byafashaga guhagarika izo mpinduka zishingiye ku mbeba uko imbeba zishaje.

 

Ikibazo cy’igihe

Imyaka yashize hagaragaye gahunda y’imirire ikunzwe cyane yibanda kubyo kwiyiriza ubusa rimwe na rimwe, nko kwiyiriza ubusa mu minsi isimburana cyangwa
kurya gusa mu gihe cy’amasaha atandatu cyangwa umunani ku munsi. Kugira ngo bagaragaze ingaruka zigabanuka rya za karori.
Itsinda rya Takahashi ryakoze ubushakashatsi bw’imyaka ine. Itsinda ryarimo imbeba amagana hamwe nigaburo ryikora (automated feeders) kugirango igenzure igihe
n’uburyo buri mbeba yariye mu buzima bwayo bwose.

Zimwe mu mbeba zashoboraga kurya uko zishakiye, mu gihe izindi zagabanije karori kuri 30 kugeza 40%. Kandi izari kumirire yagabanijwe na calorie zariye kuri
gahunda zitandukanye. Ikipe yavumbuye ko imbeba zagaburiwe indyo ya kalori nijoro, haba mu masaha abiri cyangwa amasaha 12, zabayeho igihe kirekire.

Ibisubizo byerekana ko kurya bitagabanije bigira ingaruka nziza k’umubiri, kabone niyo bidatera kugabanya ibiro nkuko ubushakashatsi bwakozwe na
New England Journal of Medicine bwabigaragaje. Takahashi yerekana ko ubushakashatsi bwe bwerekanye ko nta tandukaniro riri hagati
y’uburemere bw’imbeba kuri gahunda zitandukanye zo kurya – “ariko, twabonye itandukaniro rikomeye mu mibereho”.

Rafael de Cabo, umushakashatsi wa gerontologiya mu kigo cy’igihugu gishinzwe gusaza muri Baltimore avuga ko Science Science “ari imyiyerekano
nziza cyane ko niyo waba ugabanya karori ariko
ukaba utari [kurya mu gihe gikwiye], ntubona inyungu zuzuye zo kubuza kalori. ”

Takahashi yizera ko kwiga uburyo bwo kugabanuka kwa calorie bigira ingaruka ku masaha y’imbere y’umubiri uko tugenda dusaza bizafasha abahanga
kubona uburyo bushya bwo kwagura ubuzima bwiza bw’abantu.

Hagati aho, Takahashi arimo gukura isomo ku mbeba; aho yibuza kurya mu gihe cy’amasaha 12. Ariko, agira ati: “nitubona ibyafasha
kongera isaha yawe, dushobora noneho kubipima muri laboratoire tukareba niba ibyo byongerera igihecyo kubaho.”

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