Ikoranabuhanga

MENYANIBI:: Menya amateka ya kamera ya mbere yabayeho uko yakoraga

Amateka ya kamera atangira na mbere yo gutangiza amafoto. Kamera yavuye muri kamera obscura binyuze mu bisekuru byinshi by’ikoranabuhanga ry’amafoto – daguerreotypes, calotypes, amasahani yumye, firime – kugeza magingo aya hamwe na kamera ya terefone na terefone.

 

Kamera yo gufotora yari kamera obscura. Kamera obscura (Mu kilatini bivuga “icyumba cyijimye”) n’ikintu gisanzwe cya optique kibaho mu gihe ishusho y’ibintu kurundi ruhande rwa ecran (cyangwa urugero urukuta) iteganijwe binyuze mu mwobo muto muri iyo ecran hanyuma ikora inverted ishusho (ibumoso ugana iburyo no hejuru) hejuru y’ubuso butandukanye no gufungura.

Inyandiko za kera zizwi cyane muri iri hame ni ibisobanuro byakozwe n’umuhanga mu bya filozofiya w’Abashinwa witwa Mozi (nko mu 391  kugeza mu wa 470 nyuma  yivuka rya Yezu kristo).

 

Mozi yashimangiye neza ko kamera ya obscura ishusho yayo ihindagurika kuko urumuri rugenda mu mirongo igororotse uhereye aho ikomoka. Mu kinyejana cya 11, umuhanga mu bya ubugenge w’abarabu Ibin al-Haytham (Alhazen) yanditse ibitabo bikomeye cyane byerekerana  optique, harimo n’ubushakashatsi bwakozwe n’umucyo binyuze mu gufungura akantu mu cyumba cyijimye.

Ikoreshwa rya lens mugukingura urukuta cyangwa gufunga idirishya ry’icyumba cyijimye kugirango amashusho y’umushinga akoreshwa nkimfashanyo yo gushushanya yakomotse nko mu 1550. Kuva mu mpera z’ikinyejana cya 17 ibikoresho bya kamera bitagaragara mu mahema no mu dusanduku byakoreshejwe nk’imfashanyo yo gushushanya.

Mbere yo kuvumbura uburyo bwo gufotora nta buryo bwo kubika amashusho yakozwe na kamera usibye kubikurikirana. Kamera za mbere zari zifite icyumba kinini, gifite umwanya w’umuntu umwe cyangwa benshi imbere; buhoro buhoro byahindutse mu buryo bwinshi kandi bworoshye.

 

Mugihe cya Niépce isanduku yikuramo kamera, kamera obscurae ibereye gufotora byari byoroshye kuboneka. Kamera ya mbere yari ntoya kandi igendanwa ku buryo bufatika bwo gufotora yatekerejwe na Johann Zahn mu 1685, nubwo byari kuba hafi imyaka 150 mbere yuko gusaba gutya bishoboka.

 

Kamera ya mbere yo gufotora yatunganijwe mu bucuruzi ni kamera ya daguerreotype, yubatswe na Alphonse Giroux mu 1839. Giroux yasinyanye amasezerano na Daguerre na Isidore Niépce yo gukora kamera mu Bufaransa, hamwe na buri gikoresho n’ibikoresho bigura 400 Amafaranga.

Nyuma yuko ishusho ishimishije yari yibanze kuri ecran, ecran yasimbujwe ishusho-sahani. Uruziga ruzengurutse rwagenzuraga icyuma cy’umuringa imbere ya lens, cyakoraga nka shitingi. Kamera yo hambere ya daguerreotype yasabaga igihe kinini cyo kwerekana, muri 1839 ishobora kuva mu minota 5 kugeza 30.

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