Umuco

MENYANIBI:: Sobanukirwa amateka n’amabanga akomeye yaba chewa

Abaturage baba Chewa bafite umuco, iby’umwuka, n’imibereho itandukanya n’ayandi moko yo muri Malawi. Iryo izina ‘Chewa’ rivuzwe,rikunze kuza mubitekerezo by’abantu benshi ni imbyino ya masquerade izwi nka ‘Gule wa mkulu’. Izwi kandi ku izina rya ‘Bantu’, abaturage ba Chewa bafite abaturage bagera kuri miliyoni 1.5 muri Malawi no muri Zambiya bituranye.

Mu ntangiriro,  aba Chewa bimukiye muri Nijeriya na Kameruni maze batura muri Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Kongo mbere yo kuza muri Malawi na Zambiya mu kinyejana cya 15. Muri Malawi, abantu baba Chewa batuye mu turere twa Dedza, Kasungu, Dowa, Salima, Nkhotakota, Ntcheu, Mchinji, na Lilongwe mu karere ko hagati ya Malawi. Abantu baba Chewa batandukanye n’andi moko yo muri  Malawi bashingiye ku mvugo n’aho batuye.

Ururimi rukoreshwa n’aba chewa

Abantu baba Chewa bavuga ururimi rwa Bantu, muri Malawi bavugwa ko ari ‘Chichewa’. Chichewa ni ururimi rw’igihugu, rukoreshwa cyane mu itumanaho mu bitangazamakuru ndetse na gahunda y’uburezi  no mu bindi bitandukanye. Nubwo andi moko, nka Tumbuka, yemeza impamvu Chichewa bafite ubwenegihugu, ururimi ruracyafatwa nk’ururimi rwemewe rw’abaturage ba Malawi.

Imigenzo yaba chewa

Aba Chewa barubahwa cyane mu yandi moko kuko babonwa ko ari abantu bazi ubumaji kandi bagakoresha imbaraga zabo mu kwirinda. Imbyino yabo izwi cyane, Gule wamkulu, cyangwa ‘Nyau’, yasobanuwe nk’umuco  cyangwa umuryango w’ibanga wuzuye imbaraga z’ubumaji. Masike yerekana imbwa, ingona, intare, cyangwa imyuka ya basekuruza, kandi yambarwa mu mva cyangwa imigezi n’inzuzi kure yabaturage.

Abagabo bipfutse mu maso bafite amazina nka Chazunda na Ng’ona (Ingona). Kang’wingwi, irindi zina,rizwiho gushyira umwanda w’abantu ku munwa kandi akurura isazi aho ajya hose. Kugirango umuntu abe muri uyu muryango w’ibanga, bagomba gutangazwa. Igihe cyose abantu bumvise Gule wamkulu , barihisha, cyangwa bagapfukama bagashyira amafaranga hasi. Gule wamkulu ifatwa nk’itsinda ry’amadini kandi rijya  mu myiyereko ya perezida changwa se iyo umutware w’umudugudu ahamagaye ibirori, cyangwa igihe umwe mu bayoboke babo apfuye.

Ubuzima bwo mu mwuka

Abantu baba Chewa ni bizera imana bita ‘Chiuta’. Chewa bemera ko bahura n’imana yaremye ibintu byose binyuze mu myuka ya basekuruza hamwe n’imyuka y’inyamaswa nzima. Bizera ko Chiuta yaremye ibintu byose ku musozi wa Kapirintiwa, uherereye ku mbibi za Malawi na Mozambique. Chewa bizera kandi kudapfa bashimangira kwizera ko abakurambere babo bagiye bakibaho nyuma y’urupfu.

Imibereho yaba chewa

Mu baturage baba Chewa, harimo imiryango ibiri yiganjemo yitwa Phiri na Banda. Aba mbere bazwiho gushyigikira ubwami, mugihe aba nyuma bafitanye isano cyane n’amayobera no gukiza. Bamwe mu baturage baba Chewa baba mu mudugudu gakondo ugizwe n’inzu zigera kuri 50. Ahanini, umudugudu ugizwe n’imiryango ifitanye isano n’amaraso cyangwa gushyingirwa. Buri mudugudu ufite umutware ubiyobora.

 

Aba Chewa bahinga ibigori, imboga, itabi, umuceri, n’imbuto zo kurya no kugurisha. Mubisanzwe bafite imirima kure y’umudugudu aho bahinga imyaka itandukanye. Babona kandi amafaranga yo kuroba.

 

Umwami w’abaturage baba Chewa muri Malawi, Mozambike, na Zambiya ni Kalonga Gawa Undi. Buri mwaka muri Kanama, abaturage baba Chewa bo muri Malawi, Zambiya na Mozambike bizihiza umuhango wa Kulamba ku cyicaro cyabo mu karere ka Katete muri Zambiya.

Gushyingirwa

Iyo abashakanye bahisemo kurushinga, umugabo abimenyesha ‘Mwini Mbumba’, cyangwa nyirarume, cyangwa ‘nkhoswe’ (umutware w’umuryango). Nyirarume w’umukwe ahura na nyirarume w’umugeni hanyuma bakaganira ku bukwe. Ahanini nyirarume w’umugabo baha nyirarume w’umugore amafaranga, imyenda cyangwa ibintu byose by’agaciro bizwi nka ‘Chikole’. Nyuma, amasezerano agashyirwaho kashe.

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