Ikoranabuhanga

MENYANIBI:: Sobanukirwa amateka ya mudasobwa zigendanwa.

Amateka ya mudasobwa zigendanwa yerekana imbaraga, zatangiye mu myaka ya za 70, zo kubaka mudasobwa nto, zigendanwa zihuza ibice, ibyinjira, ibisohoka n’ubushobozi bwa mudasobwa ya desktop muri bikoresho bito.

Biragoye gato kumenya n’iyihe mudasobwa ya mbere igendanwa cyangwa mudasobwa igendanwa kuva mudasobwa za mbere zigendanwa zahagera ntaho kuko zasaga nk’ibitabo bigizwe na mudasobwa zigendanwa zimenyerewe muri iki gihe. Nyamara, byombi byari byoroshye kandi bishobora kwicara ku bibero by’umuntu hanyuma amaherezo biganisha ku iterambere rya mudasobwa zigendanwa.

 

 

Mudasobwa igendanwa

Grid Compass yateguwe mu 1979 n’Umwongereza witwa William Moggridge (1943–2012) muri Grid Systems Corporation. Cyari kimwe cya gatanu cy’uburemere bw’icyitegererezo icyo aricyo cyose gihwanye n’imikorere kandi cyakoreshejwe na NASA muri gahunda yo kohereza icyogajuru mu ntangiriro ya za 1980. Kubijyanye na tekiniki, yagaragazaga sisitemu ya mudasobwa ya mudasobwa igendanwa ya 340K byte bubble y’ibikoresho bya mudasobwa hamwe na dosiye ya magnesium kandi ikagaragaza ecran ya electroluminescent

Mudasobwa ya Gavilan Injeniyeri w’umunyamerika Manny Fernandez (wavutse 1946) yari afite igitekerezo cya mudasobwa igendanwa yateguwe neza ku bayobozi bari batangiye gukoresha mudasobwa. Fernandez watangije isosiyete ikora mudasobwa ya Gavilan, yazamuye imashini ze nka mudasobwa ya mbere “mudasobwa igendanwa” muri Gicurasi 1983. Abahanga mu by’amateka benshi bavuze ko Gavilan ari mudasobwa ya mbere igendanwa.

Mudasobwa yatekerejweho n’abanyamateka benshi ko ari mudasobwa ya mbere ishobora kwerekanwa ni Osborne 1. Igitabo cyavukiye muri Tayilande hamwe n’umwanditsi wa software witwa Adam Osborne (1939–2003) ni we washinze Osborne Computer Corp, cyakoze Osborne 1 mu 1981. Yari mudasobwa igendanwa ipima ibiro 24 igura $ 1.795. Kubw’ibyo, abayikoresha babonye ecran ya santimetero eshanu, icyambu cya modem, drives ebyiri 5 1/4, icyegeranyo kinini cya porogaramu za software hamwe na batiri. Kubw’amahirwe, isosiyete ikora mudasobwa mugihe gito ntiyigeze igenda neza.

Laptop ya mbere isohoka 1981: Epson HX-20 yatangajwe mu Buyapani, bateri ikoresha mudasobwa igendanwa ifite inyuguti 20 ku murongo wa 4 LCD yerekanwe hamwe na printer. Mutarama 1982: Itsinda rya Microsoft rya injeniyeri w’Ubuyapani Kazuhiko Nishi (wavutse 1956) na Bill Gates (wavutse 1955) batangira ibiganiro ku bijyanye no gukora mudasobwa igendanwa yagaragazaga amashusho mashya ya kirisiti cyangwa ecran ya LCD. Nishi yaje kwereka prototype kuri Radio Shack maze umucuruzi yemera gukora mudasobwa. Nyakanga 1982: Isohoka rya Epson HX-20 1983: Radio Shack yasohoye Model 100 ya TRS-80 Model 100, ikoreshwa na bateri yama pound 4 ikoreshwa na TRS-80 Model III yayo ifite igishushanyo mbonera gisa na mudasobwa zigendanwa zigezweho.

Gashyantare 1984: IBM yatangaje IBM 5155 Mudasobwa Yigenga. 1986: Radio Shack yasohoye Model 200 ya TRS nshya, inoze kandi ntoya. 1988: Compaq Computer yazanye mudasobwa ya mbere ya igendanwa ifite amashusho ya VGA, Compaq SLT / 286. Uburyo bwa Mudasobwa(“Notebook”) Ukwakira 1988: Gusohoka kwa mudasobwa ya NEC UltraLite bamwe babonaga ko ari mudasobwa ya mbere “Mudasobwa(“Notebook”)”. Yari mudasobwa nini yapimaga ibiro 5. Nzeri 1989: Isosiyete ya Apple yasohoye mudasobwa ya mbere ya Macintosh nyuma yaje guhinduka muri Powerbook. 1989: Zenith Data Systems yasohoye Zenith MinisPort, mudasobwa igendanwa y’ibiro 6.

Ukwakira 1989: Compaq  yasohoye Mudasobwa ya mbere ya PC, Compaq LTE. Werurwe 1991: Microsoft yasohoye mouse ya “Microsoft BallPoint Mouse”, yakoreshejwe ikoranabuhanga rya mouse na trackball mugikoresho cyerekana mudasobwa igendanwa. Ukwakira 1991: Mudasobwa ya Apple yasohoye Macintosh PowerBook 100, 140 na 170 mudasobwa zigendanwa zose. Ukwakira 1992: IBM yasohoye mudasobwa igendanwa ya ThinkPad 700. 1992: Intel na Microsoft basohoye APM cyangwa uburyo bunoze bwo gucunga ingufu za mudasobwa zigendanwa. 1993: Hasohotse bwa mbere PDAs cyangwa Private Digital Assistant Assistant.

 

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