Ikoranabuhanga

MENYANIBI:: Sobanukirwa igihe indorerwamo z’amaso igihe zakorewe

Indorerwamo z’amaso ya mbere zakozwe mu majyaruguru y’Ubutaliyani, ahagana mu 1290: Mu nyigisho yatanzwe ku ya 23 Gashyantare 1306, umufaransa wo muri Dominikani Giordano da Pisa (nko mu 1255–1311) yaranditse ati “Ntabwo hashize imyaka makumyabiri kuva aho habonetse ubuhanga bwo gukora indorerwamo z’amaso, zitanga icyerekezo cyiza … Kandi ni igihe gito cyane ku buryo ubu bukorikori bushya, butigeze bubaho, bwavumbuwe. … Nabonye uwabivumbuye bwa mbere akabukora, kandi, Naganiriye na we.

Mugenzi wa Giordano, Friar Alessandro della Spina wa Pisa (m. 1313) yahise akora amadarubindi. Amateka ya kera ya Monasiteri ya Dominikani ya Mutagatifu Catherine yanditse muri Pisa yanditse ati: “Indorerwamo z’amaso, zakozwe bwa mbere n’undi muntu, utashakaga kuzisangira, [Spina] yarazikoze maze azisangira na buri wese n’umutima wishimye kandi ubishaka. . ” Mu kinyejana cya cumi na kane byari ibintu bisanzwe cyane: Francesco Petrarca avuga muri rumwe mu rwandiko rwe avuga ko, kugeza afite imyaka 60, atari akeneye ibirahure, kandi Franco Sacchetti abivuga kenshi muri Trecentonovelle.

Ibimenyetso bya mbere byerekana amashusho yo gukoresha amadarubindi ni Tommaso da Modena 1352 yerekana umukaridinali Hugh de Provence asoma muri scriptorium. Urundi rugero rwo hambere rwaba ari ugushushanya amadarubindi y’amaso aboneka mu majyaruguru ya Alpes mu gicaniro cy’itorero rya Bad Wildungen, mu Budage, mu 1403. Ibyo birahure byo hambere byari bifite lensike ya convex ishobora gukosora hyperopiya (kurebera kure), na presbyopiya ikunze gutera imbere. nk’ikimenyetso cyo gusaza. Mu mwaka wa 1604, ni bwo Johannes Kepler yasohoye ibisobanuro bya mbere by’ukuri ku bijyanye n’impamvu za convex na conge zishobora gukosora presbyopiya na myopiya.

 

Amakadiri ya mbere yikirahure yari agizwe nibirahuri bibiri binini bizunguruka hamwe n’udufashi kugirango bashobore gufata izuru. Ibi byitwa “indorerwamo ya rivet”. Ingero za mbere zabonetse munsi y’imbaho ​​za Kloster Wienhausen nyuma y’imivurungano hafi ya Celle mu Budage, zazanywe  n’ umubikira bakundanye ahagana mu 1400.

 

Amaduka ya mbere y’inzobere ku isi yafunguye i Strasbourg (icyo gihe Ingoma yera y’Abaroma, ubu ni Ubufaransa) mu 1466.  Ikinyejana cya 17,  Francesco Redi, yanditse inyandiko zivuga ko Salvino degli Armati wa Florence yahimbye indorerwamo z’amaso, mu kinyejana cya 13, byagaragaye ko ari amakosa.

 

Rimwe na rimwe bivugwa ko Marco Polo yahuye n’amadarubindi mu rugendo rwe mu Bushinwa mu kinyejana cya 13. Icyakora, nta magambo nk’ayo agaragara kubimuranga.  Nkaho, hambere havugwa indorerwamo z’amaso mu Bushinwa zibayeho mu kinyejana cya 15 kandi ayo masoko y’Ubushinwa avuga ko indorerwamo z’amaso zatumijwe mu mahanga.

Mu 1907, Porofeseri Berthold Laufer yavuze ko, mu mateka ye y’ibirahure, ko kugira ngo ibirahuri bivuzwe mu bitabo by’Ubushinwa n’Uburayi mu gihe kimwe bishoboka ko bitavumbuwe mu gihe cy’ubwigenge. Icyakora, Joseph Needham yerekanye ko kuvuga ibirahuri mu nyandiko yandikishijwe intoki y’igishinwa Laufer yakoreshaga kugira ngo yemeze ko byavumbuwe mbere muri Aziya bitigeze bibaho mu mpapuro za kera z’iyo nyandiko, no kubavuga nyuma yaho hiyongereyeho ku ngoma ya Ming.

Mu myaka ya za 1930, “indorerwamo” zasobanuwe nk “ibikoresho byo kwa muganga.”  Kwambara indorerwamo rimwe na rimwe byafatwaga nk’urukozasoni mu mibereho. Mu myaka ya za 70, ibirahuri by’imyambarire byatangiye kuboneka binyuze mu nganda, kandi leta nazo zemera ko hakenewe imyenda y’amaso.

Umuhanga w’umunyamerika Benjamin Franklin, wari urwaye myopiya na presbyopiya, yahimbye ibice bibiri. Abahanga mu by’amateka bagiye batanga ibimenyetso byerekana ko abandi bashobora kuba baramubanjirije mu gihangano; icyakora, inzandiko zanditswe na George Whatley na John Fenno, umwanditsi w’ikinyamakuru The Gazette cyo muri Amerika, zagaragaje ko Franklin yayahimbye koko, kandi wenda imyaka 50 mbere y’uko byari byatekerejwe mbere. Lens ya mbere yo gukosora astigmatism yateguwe n’umuhanga mu bumenyi bw’ikirere w’Ubwongereza George Airy mu 1825.

Mu 1971, Rishi Agarwal, mu kiganiro yasohotse mu kinyamakuru cyo mu Bwongereza cyitwa Ophthalmology, avuga ko Vyasatirtha yagaragaye afite ibirahuri bibiri mu myaka ya za 1520, avuga ko: “… bityo rero, bishoboka cyane ko gukoresha lens byagezweho n’uburayi binyuze mu barabu, kimwe n’imibare y’Abahindu n’ibikorwa by’amaso by’umuganga wa kera umuganga w’inzobere mu kubaga witwa Sushruta “,  ariko amatariki yose yatanzwe neza nyuma y’uko mu Butaliyani hashyizweho amadarubindi, kandi hakaba hari ibicuruzwa byinshi byoherejwe mu Butaliyani mu burasirazuba bwo hagati, hamwe byoherejwe bingana n’ibirahuri 24.000.

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