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MENYANIBI: Sobanukirwa n’amabanga 10 ya mbere y’aba Maya

Umushakashatsi Michael Shapiro Ati “Isi y’Abamaya ikomeje gutwikirwa mu mayobera, kandi imyumvire myinshi itari yo ku baturage n’amateka yabo bisaba kwihangana. Dore amabanga amwe y’Abamaya yahishuwe.

Abamaya ntibigeze babura.

Nkuko kugwa kwa Roma bitasobanuye ko iherezo ry’Abaroma rirangiye cyangwa baburiwe irengero, kugabanuka kw’imigi minini y’Abamaya, nka Tikal ya Guatemala, yageze ku rwego rwo hejuru mu kinyejana cya cyenda, ntibisobanura ko abasangwabutaka babuze. Abagera kuri 40 ku ijana by’abaturage ba Guatemala ni miliyoni 14 ni Abamaya, naho mu majyepfo ya Mexico ndetse no mu gace ka Yucatán niho hari utundi turere twinshi twiganjemo Abamaya. ibirori byo kwizihiza birakomeza. Muri Guatemala hari abantu barenga 20 batandukanye b’Abamaya muri buri gihugu, buri wese afite umuco we, imyambarire ye, n’ururimi, ndetse n’ibihumbi magana by’Abamaya baba hakurya y’umupaka.

Abamaya ntibizera ko imperuka y’isi iri hafi.

Filime za Apocalyptic zishobora kwerekana ko Abamaya bizera ko iherezo rya kalendari 5.000-yongeyeho-umwaka wa 21 Ukuboza 2012 igihe cyavugwaga ko ari icya nyuma, ariko ibyo ntabwo arukuri. Abamaya benshi bashobora kwishimira itangiriro ry’imyaka 5,125 y’umwaka wa kalendari ndende nkuko twizihije ikinyagihumbi gishya. Ariko ntibizera ko imperuka y’isi iri hafi. Niba hari icyo, bizeye ko ibihe bishya bizatangiza mugihe cyimyumvire ihanitse, amahoro menshi, no kurushaho gusobanukirwa mu bantu batandukanye ku isi.

Abamaya ba kera bateje imbere igitekerezo cya zeru.

Ikirangantego cyiza cya Maya kalendari ishingiye kuri zeru nk’ahantu. Nubwo igitekerezo cya zeru gishobora kuba cyatangiriye i Babiloni, cyahujwe n’abigenga n’Abamaya, bishoboka ko mu kinyejana cya kane. Zero mu rurimi rwanditse rw’Abamaya yakunze kugereranywa na glyph imeze nk’igikonoshwa. Sisitemu y’imibare y’Abamaya ishingiye ku bintu 20. Noneho imibare y’Abamaya igizwe n’ibice bya 1, 20, 400, n’ibindi.

Benshi mu isi y’Abamaya baguma munsi y’ubutaka.

Ahantu hanini h’Abamaya, nka Palenque mu majyepfo ya Mexico na Chichén Itzá mu majyaruguru, ahanini  haracukuwe. Ndetse na Tikal, amatongo azwi cyane muri Guatemala, afite ibirunga bishobora kuba bihisha  insengero zikomeye. Lesser yasuye ahantu h’Abamaya, nka El Mirador na Uaxactún, mu majyaruguru ya Tikal mu mashyamba ya Petén ya Guatemal yatunguwe no gusanga yacukuye mu buryo bushimishije kandi birakomeye kugirango uhavumbure. Belize, nayo ifite umugabane w’amatongo yacukuwe cyane, nka Altun Ha, ku bilometero 30 uvuye mu mujyi wa Belize.

Abamaya bari abakunzi ba sauna.

Abamaya ba kera bishimiraga sauna y’amabuye, azwi nka temascal muri Yucatán Peninsula, cyangwa tuj mu rurimi rw’Abamaya rwa Quiché. Sauna ya Maya, cyangwa ibyuya, iracyakunzwe kandi ihabwa abashyitsi kuri hoteri na resitora ku isi yose y’Abamaya. Imijyi ya kera y’Abamaya yubatse sauna y’amabuye cyangwa ibyondo bya adobe ibyo byakoreshwaga mu buzima no mubijyanye no gusenga. Umukoranabushake w’amahoro Corps muri Guatemala yanditse ati: “Nyuma y’igihe gito uzabona ko ubira icyuya, kandi ko icyo bita grasa, rusa nkaho rwikura mu ruhu rwawe n’ubwenge bwawe. ”

Ubutaka bw’Abamaya bukora ibirunga.

Urunigi rw’ibirunga runyura muri Guatemala kandi ibyinshi muri ibi bikomeza gukora. Uhereye mu mujyi wa Antigua Guatemala ukurura ba mukerarugendo, ushobora kubona kenshi ikirunga cya Fuego gisohora umwotsi mwinshi cyangwa jettisoning y’umuriro wa lava, cyane cyane nijoro. Hafi ya Antigua (hafi y’iminota 90) ni ikirunga cya Pacaya, kimaze imyaka giturika buri gihe.Abakozi ba Travel muri Antigua batwara abagenzi buri munsi ushobora gutemberamo muri metero nkeya yafi lava.

Inzuzi z’amazi yera zinyura ku isi y’Abamaya.

Iyo abantu benshi batekereje ku mazi yera muri Amerika yo Hagati, batekereza muri Kosta Rika. Ariko Guatemala ifite ahantu ho ku rwego rw’isi, ntabwo ari urugendo rushimishije gusa ahubwo ni uburyo bwo guhura n’Abamaya baho batuye ku nkombe  z’amazi yo mu mashyamba. Umugezi wa Usumacinta unyura hafi y’umupaka wa Mexico na Guatemala kandi  ingendo z’inzuzi zihagarara ku matongo nka Piedras Negras, ku rubibi rwa Guatemala. Umugore w’umunyamerika, Tammy Ridenour, amaze imyaka isaga makumyabiri akora ingendo no kuyobora ingendo zo mu nzuzi ndetse no kwidagadura muri Guatemala.

Imikino y’amaraso yari ingenzi ku isi ya kera y’Abamaya.

Imijyi myinshi ya Maya yarimo ibibuga by’umupira aho amakipe n’abakinnyi beza bagerageza gutsinda. Umupira uremereye, akenshi umeze nk’umupira w’amaguru wakozwe mu mbaho zikomeye; intiti zimwe zitekereza ko ibihanga by’abantu rimwe na rimwe byaba byarashyizwe imbere mu mipira.Imikino yari indorerwamo z’umuco zikurikirwa n’ibitambo by’abantu. Ntabwo abantu bose batekereza ko abatsinzwe bahawe imana. Umuyobozi muri Tikal yizera adashidikanya ko aribwo yatsinze. Yambwiye hejuru y’urusengero rurerure ati: “Morir en Tikal es un honor”. “Gupfira i Tikal ni icyubahiro.”

Piramide zimwe zaba Maya zubatswe kugirango zigaragaze ibyabaye mu bumenyi bw’ikirere.

Ntabwo ari ibanga ko Abamaya bari abahanga mu bumenyi bw’inyenyeri  ikitazwi cyane ni uko inyubako nini zikomeye z’Abamaya, nka piramide ya El Castillo (Urusengero rwa Kukulcan) i Chichén Itzá, zigaragaza ibyabaye mu bumenyi bw’ikirere. Mu gihe kimwe, igicucu kizunguruka cyitwa “inzoka” ku ruhande rw’urwego rw’amajyaruguru ya Kukulcan.Ikindi kandi kuri Chichén Itzá ni El Caracol, izwi nka obserwatori, ifitanye isano n’umubumbe wa Venusi. Intambwe y’imbere ya El Caracol yibasiye umwanya wa Venuis uherereye mu majyaruguru, kandi impande z’inyubako zigahuza nu mwanya w’izuba  rirashe hamwe n’izuba rirenze.

Ntawe uzi icyateye kugabanuka kwihuse kw’imico y’Abamaya.

Guhera mu kinyejana cya munani no mu cyenda, imijyi ya Maya yagabanutse bitunguranye; abantu babo barapfuye cyangwa basubiye inyuma muri iyi mijyi minini. Imico yari yaratejwe imbere cyane ni kuhira imyaka, ubuhinzi, inyenyeri, hamwe n’ubuhanga bwo kubaka, hamwe n’imibereho itoroshye, yahise isenyuka. Ntawe uzi impamvu.Mu nyigisho  kongera intambara hagati y’ibihugu by’umujyi wa Maya, abaturage benshi bigatuma kwangirika kw’ibidukikije nk’ubutaka bwangiritse, n’imihindagurikire y’ikirere iterwa no gutema amashyamba. Izindi nyigisho zerekana ko kwaguka kw’abategetsi n’abami n’abapadiri, no gukomeza gusaba kubaka insengero, byateje ubusumbane nta bakozi bahagije. Birashoboka ko yari ihuriro ry’ibintu byavuzwe haruguru; ntidushobora kubimenya.Michael Shapiro ni umwe mu banditsi ba Guatemala.

 

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