Rwanda : Itsinda ry’Abashakashatsi ryavumbuye ubwoko bushya bw’agakoko gatera Igituntu

Itsinda ry’abashakashatsi mu kigo cy’Igihugu cy’Ubuzima mu Rwanda (RBC) ryavumbuye ubwoko budasanzwe bw’agakoko gatera Igituntu butigeze buvumburwa n’abandi bahanga ku Isi mu mateka y’iyi ndwara.

Ubusanzwe Igituntu ni indwara y’ibihaha iterwa n’agakoko kitwa “Mycobacterium tuberculosisˮ cyangwa “Bacille de Kochˮ yandurira mu mwuka igihe uyirwaye akoroye cyangwa yitsamuye, utwo dukoko tukajya mu kirere, hanyuma umuntu wese uhumetse uwo mwuka akaba yayandura.

Isuzuma ryakozwe muri 2014 ku bisigazwa by’umubiri w’umuntu wakomokaga mu gihugu cya Peru wari ukirwaye, ryerekanye ko Igituntu gishobora kuba cyarabayeho mu myaka isaga ibihumbi bitandatu ishize, ariko tariki ya 24 Werurwe 1882 nibwo Dr. Robert Koch yavumbuye agakoko gatera iyo ndwara, uyu munsi uhita unagirwa umunsi mpuzamahanga wo kurwanya Igituntu.

Ngabonziza Semuto Jean Claude Umukozi wa RBC uyoboye ubu bushakashatsi bwagejeje u Rwanda ku gahigo ko kuvumbura ubwoko bushya bw’agakoko gatera igituntu, yabwiye itangazamakuru ko kuva indwara y’Igituntu imenyekanye, abashakashatsi hirya no hino bakomeje gushakisha imiti yagihangara ndetse no kumenya byimbitse uburyo aka gakoko kashoboye gutera indwara no gukwirakwira mu bantu.

Ngabonziza avuga ko muri Gicurasi 2017 aribwo itsinda ayoboye ryatangiye ubushakashatsi ku gituntu cy’igikatu mu Rwanda, hagamijwe kureba uburyo bwizewe kandi bwihuse bwo gupima muri Laboratwari no gukurikirana mu buryo bwimbitse indwara y’igituntu by’umwihariko icy’igikatu (kitavurwa n’imiti isanzwe yo ku rwego rwa mbere).


                                              Ngabonziza Semuto Jean Claude Umukozi wa RBC uyoboye itsinda ry’Abashakashatsi

Ako gakoko byemejwe ko kadasanzwe mu Ukuboza 2017 hamaze gukorwa ibizamini byimbitse ku turemangingo twako (DNA), mu bizamini by’umurwayi wakomokaga mu Karere ka Rulindo, akaza no kwitaba Imana mu gihe gito atangiye imiti.

Ngabonziza ati : “Kimwe mu bidasanzwe kuri aka gakoko ka cyenda kavumbuwe mu Rwanda ni uko ariko kabanziriza uruhererekane rwatwo kakaba kagaragaza ishusho y’uburyo udukoko twagiye duhindagurika kugera ku udutera Igituntu.”

Akomeza avuga ko ubusanzwe bishobora gutwara amezi agera kuri atatu kugira ngo hemezwe ko imiti iri gukora neza ku gituntu cy’igikatu, ariko ngo ubu bushakashatsi buzatuma icyo gihe kigabanuka cyane kugera nibura ku cyumweru kimwe.

Ubushakashatsi kuri utwo dukoko bukorwa hagendewe ku ruhererekane rwatwo “Lineageˮ, tugatandukanira ku turemangingo tuzigize “DNAˮ.

Kuva ubushakashatsi gukorwa, agakoko kabanje kuvumburwa kahawe izina rya Lineage ya mbere (L1), akakurikiye kitwa L2 kugera ku ka munani gaheruka kiswe ‘L8’.

Urwo ruhererekane rw’utu dukoko usanga tugenda tunatandukana mu buryo dukwirakwira hirya no hino cyangwa uko tubasha guhangana n’ubwoko bw’imiti.

Umwihariko w’ako bavumbuye, ngo nuko kagaragaza byihariye ko kitandukanyije n’utwo mu muryango w’utudatera indwara kagahinduka akazitera ariko kanafite ibyo gahuriyeho n’impande zose.

Ubu bwoko bushya bwavumbuwe n’Abanyarwanda, ntabwo burahabwa izina ariko birashoboka ko ryazaba “Lineage 9ˮ ukurikije uko utundi twagiye twitwa, gusa iri zina rizatangazwa cyangwa se rimenyekane igihe inyandiko ivuga kuri ubu bushakashatsi izaba igiye gushyirwa mu kinyamakuru cy’Ubushakashatsi ku rwego mpuzamahanga “Medical Scientific Journalˮ, bitarenze amezi abiri ari imbere.

Muri ubu bushakashatsi RBC ifatanyije n’ibindi bigo by’ubushakashatsi mpuzamahanga birimo Institute of Tropical Medicine yo mu Bubiligi, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique ibarizwa mu Bufaransa, GenoScreen nayo yo mu Bufaransa, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute yo mu Busuwisi, na Laboratoire de Référence des Mycobactéries yo muri Benin.

Muri uyu mwaka, nibwo abagize iri tsinda bamuritse uburyo bavumbuye aka gakoko mu nama mpuzamahanga y’abashakashatsi ku dukoko dutera Igituntu yabereye muri Espagne kuva tariki ya 30 Kamena kugeza kuri 04 Nyakanga, buhita bwemezwa.

Mu mwaka 2018, Umuryango ushinzwe kwita ku buzima ku Isi (OMS) watangaje ko Abanyarwanda 57 bari barwaye igituntu, mu gihe umwaka wawubanjirije bari 64.

Mu myaka itanu ishize, abakirwaye bagabanutseho nibura 8% buri mwaka. Ibi bikaba bitanga icyizere ko bikomeje uko, u Rwanda rwazesa umuhigo rwihaye mu ntego z’iterambere rirambye ko muri 2030 ruzaba rwagabanyije abarwayi b’ Igituntu ku gipimo cya 80%.

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